Engineering equipment and components can fail due to a variety of reasons. Failure analysis is performed to determine the cause of the failure, assist clients to understand the underlying reasons, and guide clients in preventing a recurrence of the failure.
PTS specializes in metallurgical failure analysis (mechanical and materials aspects), whereby our metallurgists would determine failure mode (mechanism) that has caused a metal component to fail. This would be done together with an evaluation of background information, such as environment, stress, operating conditions, history of use as well as a review of engineering drawings and applicable standards, codes & specifications. Probable cause(s) of failure can then be narrowed down and identified.
A detailed cross-evaluation of results from different analytical techniques and tests to determine the exact type of failure mode (mechanism) occurring on the failed component, for example Fracture, Fatigue, Wear, Corrosion, etc., or a combination of the above. Numerous failure mechanisms exist that might be very specific for different materials in different environments.
An analytical technique using a combination of visual inspection, optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to characterize specific features such as (e.g. beach marks, ratchet marks, cleavage facets, dimples, striations, voids, etc., thatc.) present on the fracture surface of a failed component, allowing for positive identification of the occurrence of a particular failure mechanism. This technique is Aalso used to determine the stages of crack growth, h (i.ee.g. initiation, propagation, final fracture, ) for subsequent metallographic examination.
An analytical technique requiring the usage of an optical microscope to examine the microstructure of a metallographically prepared specimen extracted from the area of interest of the failed component. Specific microstructural features related to their respective failure mechanisms (e.g. branching transgranular cracks in Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking; stepwise-like cracking in Hydrogen-Induced cracking of Steels; porous red copper layer in Dezincification of Brass, etc.) can be interpreted by this technique.
An analytical technique mainly focused on the usage of the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Detector coupled to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) on suspected contaminated metal products or components. Identification of the elemental composition and morphology of the contaminant allows for more precise conjecture of the contaminant product.
An analytical technique employed post-corrosion failure to identify and determine the nature of the corrodent and the mechanism of the particular corrosion on the failed part or component. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Detector coupled to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can be used to identify the composition of the corrosion deposits in order to identify the nature of the corrodent. A subsequent metallographic examination will then focus on determining the specific corrosion mechanism.
An analytical technique employing the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Detector coupled to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to determine the morphology and major elemental compositions of a mixture of particles. EDX mapping can be used to provide an overall elemental distribution in the mixture, followed by specific spot analysis on representative particles. Concurrent usage with optical microscope can also provide valuable correlative identification of the particles.
An analytical technique for study and characterization of surfaces to provide data about the physical topography, surface roughness, chemical composition of the surfaces of interest. Due to wear, machining and heat treatment processes, surface material might have different properties from the bulk material. Analyzing an intact surface can provide a comparative assessment of any possible contributions to the failure.
Professional Testing Services Sdn Bhd
PT. Professional Technology Specialist